Charles R Rinaldo, PhD

Professor, Infectious Diseases and Microbiology

Professor, Pathology


2139 Public Health, 130 DeSoto Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15261
R-znvy: evanyqb@cvgg.rqh
Primary Phone: 967-179-8473
Secondary Phone: 967-192-8219
Fax: 967-179-9408

Personal Statement

Cellular immunity to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV; human herpesvirus 8), clinical virology.

Dr. Rinaldo is Professor of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology (IDM) in the University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health (GSPH) and Professor of Pathology in the School of Medicine. In 1983, he was successful in establishing a Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) site in Pittsburgh, termed the Pitt Men's Study (PMS), which investigates the natural history of AIDS in men who have sex with men in Pittsburgh. The MACS currently has published over 1700 scientific articles, many of which have had significant impact in the field of AIDS research.

Dr. Rinaldo's research is focused on the relation of disease progression to dendritic cell function and reactivity of CD8 killer T cells to HIV and human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8, or KSHV, the cause of Kaposi's sarcoma).  Dr. Rinaldo has mentored many graduate students and postdoctoral fellows, and has had continuous research grant funding from the NIH since 1979. 


Undergraduate1964-1966 | Onondaga Community College, Syracuse, NY | A.A., General Studies
1966-1969 | Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY | A.B., Bacteriology

1969-1970 | University of Rochester, Rochester, NY | PhD Candidate, Microbiology
1970-1973 | University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT | PhD, Microbiology

1973-1974 | Postdoctoral Research Fellow, University of Utah | Microbiology
1974-1977 | Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Massachusetts General Hospital | Infectious Disease
1977-1978 | Research Associate, Massachusetts General Hospital | Infectious Disease


IDM 2003 - Host Response to Microbial Infection
IDM 2038 - Treatment, Prevention and Control of Global Infectious Disease

Pathology Residency Training Program - Teaching of clinical virology to Pathology Residents during their rotation in Clinical Microbiology

Selected Publications

Macatangay BJC, Jackson EK, Abebe KZ, Comer D, Cyktor J, Klamar-Blain C, Borowski L, Gillespie DG, Mellors JW, Rinaldo CR, Riddler SA.Macatangay BJC, et al A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Pilot Clinical Trial of  Dipyridamole to Decrease Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Chronic Inflammation. J Infect Dis.  221:1598-1606, 2020.

Macatangay BJC, Gandhi RT, Jones RB, Mcmahon DK, Lalama CM, Bosch RJ, Cyktor JC, Thomas AS, Borowski L, Riddler SA, Hogg E, Stevenson E, Eron JJ, Mellors JW, Rinaldo CR; ACTG A5321 Team.  T cells with high PD-1 expression are associated with lower HIV-specific immune responses despite long-term antiretroviral therapy. AIDS 34:15-24, 2020. PMID: 31634201

Rappocciolo G, Sluis-Cremer N, Rinaldo CR. Efficient HIV-1 Trans Infection of CD4+ T Cells Occurs in the Presence of Antiretroviral Therapy. Open Forum Infect. Dis. 6:ofz253, 2019. PMID: 31304185

Kristoff J, Palma ML, Garcia-Bates TM, Shen C, Sluis-Cremer N, Gupta P, Rinaldo CR, Mailliard RB. Type 1-programmed dendritic cells drive antigen-specific latency reversal and immune elimination of persistent HIV-1. EBioMedicine 43:295-306, 2019. PMID: 30952614

Kristoff J, Rinaldo CR, Mailliard RB.  Role of dendritic cells in exposing latent HIV-1 for the kill.  Viruses  vol. 12 pii: E37, 2019.

Garcia-Bates TM, Palma ML, Shen C, Gambotto A, Macatangay BJC Ferris RL, Rinaldo CR, Mailliard RB.  Contrasting roles of the PD-1 signaling pathway in dendritic cell-mediated induction and regulation of HIV-1-specific effector T cell functions.  J Virol. 93:e02035-18, 2019. PMID: 30541848

Stram MN, Suciu CN, Seheult JN, McCullough MA, Kader M, Wells A, Pasculle AW, Rinaldo CR, Ismail N.  Herpes simplex virus-1 qPCR in the diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infections in organ transplant recipients and critically ill patients.  Am J Clin Pathol, 150:522-532, 2018. PMID: 30212869

DeLucia DC, Rinaldo CR, Rappocciolo G.  Inefficient HIV-1 trans infection of CD4+ T cells by macrophages from HIV-1 nonprogressors is associated with altered membrane cholesterol and DC-SIGN.  J Virol. 92:e00092, 2018. PMID: 29643243

Benson CA, Anderson JW, Macatangay BJC, Rinaldo CR, Mailliard RB, Read S, Bozzolo DR, Purdue L, Jennings C, Keefer MC, Glesby M, Tebas P, Russell AF, Martin J, Annunziato P, Popmihajlov Z, Lennox J.  Safety and immunogenicity of zoster vaccine live in HIV-infected adults with CD4+ cell counts above 200 cells/uL virologically suppressed on antiretroviral therapy.  Clin. Infect. Dis. 67:1712-1719, 2018.

Rappocciolo G, Jais M, Piazza PA, DeLucia DC, Jenkins FJ, Rinaldo CR.  Human herpesvirus 8 infects and replicates in Langerhans Cells and Interstitial Dermal Dendritic Cells and impairs their function.  J Virol, 91:e000909-17, 2017. PMID: 28768873

Sanyal A, Mailliard RB, Rinaldo CR, Ratner D, Ding M, Chen Y, Zerbato JM, Giacobbi NS, Venkatachari NJ, Patterson BK, Chargin A, Sluis-Cremer N, Gupta P.  Novel assay reveals a large inducible-replication competent HIV-1 reservoir in resting CD4+ T cells.  Nature Med.  23:885-889, 2017. PMID: 28426825

Gandhi RT, McMahon DK, Bosch RJ, Lalama CM, Cyktor JC, Macatangay BJ, Rinaldo CR, Riddler SA, Hogg E, Godfrey C, Collier AC, Eron JJ, Mellors JW, ACTG A5321 Team.  Levels of HIV-1 persistence on antiretroviral therapy are not associated with markers of inflammation or activation. PLoS Pathogens 13:e1006285, 2017. PMID: 28426825

Macatangay BJ, Yang M, Sun X, Morton J, Gruttola V, Little S, Hogan C, Rinaldo CR and the A5217 Team. Changes in levels of inflammation following antiretroviral treatment during early HIV infection in ACTG A5217. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 75:137-141, 2017. PMID: 28198712

Smith KN, Mailliard RB, Piazza PA, Fischer W, Korber BT, Fecek RJ, Ratner D, Gupta, P, Mullins JI,  Rinaldo CR. Effective cytotoxic T lymphocyte targeting of persistent HIV-1 during antiretroviral therapy requires priming of naive CD8+ T cells. MBio 7: e00473-16, 2016. PMID: 27247230

Macatangay BJ, Riddler SA, Wheeler ND, Spindler J, Lawani M, Hong F, Buffo MJ, Whiteside TL, Kearney MF, Mellors JW, Rinaldo CR.  Therapeutic vaccination with dendritic cells loaded with autologous HIV-1-infected apoptotic cells.  J Infect Dis. 213:1400-1409, 2016. PMID: 26647281

Zaccard CR, Watkins SC, Fecek RJ, Kalinski P, Salter RD,  Ayyavoo V, Rinaldo CR, Mailliard RB.  CD40 ligand induces  networks of tunneling nanotubes exclusively in dendritic cells activated by mediators of type-1 immunity. J Immunol. 194:1047-1056, 2015. PMID: 25548234

Knowlton E, Rappocciolo G, Lepone LM,  Nadgir SV,  Bullotta  A,  Berendam SJ, Li J,  Reinhart TA, Jenkins FJ, Rinaldo CR.  Human herpesvirus 8 induces polyfunctional B lymphocytes that drive Kaposi's sarcoma. MBio  5:e01277-14, 2014. PMID: 25182322

Rappocciolo G, Jais M, Piazza, P, Berendam SJ, Reinhart TA, Gupta P, Rinaldo C.  Alterations in cholesterol metabolism restrict trans infection in HIV-1 controllers. MBio 5: e01031-13, 2014. PMID: 24781743

Piazza P, Campbell D, Mailliard R, Marques, E, Hildebrand WH, Buchli R, Rinaldo CR. Dengue virus infected human dendritic cells reveal hierarchies of naturally expressed novel NS3 CD8 T cell epitopes. Clin. Exp. Immunol.  177:696-702, 2014. PMID: 24816171

Smith KN, Mailliard RB, Larsen BB, Wong K, Gupta P, Mullins JI, Rinaldo CR.  Dendritic cells restore CD8+ T cell reactivity to autologous HIV-1.  J. Virol.  88:9976-9990, 2014. PMID: 24942586

Mailliard R, Smith KN, Fecek RJ, Rappocciolo G, Nascimento E, Marques E T H, Watkins SC, Mullins JI, and Rinaldo, C.R. Selective Induction of CTL helper rather than killer activity by natural epitope variants promotes dendritic cell-mediated HIV-1 dissemination. J. Immunol. 191:2570-2580, 2013. PMID: 23913962

Charles R Rinaldo