Charles R Rinaldo, PhD

Professor and Chair, Infectious Diseases and Microbiology

Professor, Pathology


2126 Public Health, 130 DeSoto Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15261
R-znvy: evanyqb@cvgg.rqh
Primary Phone: 967-179-8473
Secondary Phone: 967-192-8219
Fax: 967-179-9408

Judy Malenka, wznyraxn@cvgg.rqh, 967-179-6182

Personal Statement

Cellular immunity to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV; human herpesvirus 8), clinical virology.

Dr. Rinaldo is Chairman and Professor of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology (IDM) in the University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health (GSPH) and Professor of Pathology in the School of Medicine. In 1983, he was successful in establishing a Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) site in Pittsburgh, termed the Pitt Men's Study (PMS), which investigates the natural history of AIDS in men who have sex with men in Pittsburgh. The MACS currently has published over 1100 scientific articles, many of which have had significant impact in the field of AIDS research.

Dr. Rinaldo's research is focused on the relation of disease progression to dendritic cell function and reactivity of CD8 killer T cells to HIV and human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8, or KSHV, the cause of Kaposi's sarcoma).  Dr. Rinaldo has mentored many graduate students and postdoctoral fellows, and has had continuous research grant funding from the NIH since 1979. 


Undergraduate1964-1966 | Onondaga Community College, Syracuse, NY | A.A., General Studies
1966-1969 | Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY | A.B., Bacteriology

1969-1970 | University of Rochester, Rochester, NY | PhD Candidate, Microbiology
1970-1973 | University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT | PhD, Microbiology

1973-1974 | Postdoctoral Research Fellow, University of Utah | Microbiology
1974-1977 | Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Massachusetts General Hospital | Infectious Disease
1977-1978 | Research Associate, Massachusetts General Hospital | Infectious Disease


IDM 2003 - Host Response to Microbial Infection
IDM 2038 - Treatment, Prevention and Control of Global Infectious Disease
MSIMM 3230 - Immunology and Human Disease
MSMVM 3440 - Vaccines and Immunity

Pathology Residency Training Program - Teaching of clinical virology to Pathology Residents during their rotation in Clinical Microbiology

Selected Publications


Kristoff J, Palma ML, Garcia-Bates TM, Shen C, Sluis-Cremer N, Gupta P, Rinaldo CR, Mailliard RB.  Type 1-programmed dendritic cells drive antigen-specifric latency reversal and immune elimination of persistent HIV-1.  EBioMedicine, 43:295-306, 2019.

Garcia-Bates TM, Palma ML, Shen C, Gambotto A, Macatangay BJC Ferris RL, Rinaldo CR, Mailliard RB.  Contrasting roles of the PD-1 signaling pathway in dendritic cell-mediated induction and regulation of HIV-1-specific effector T cell functions.  J Virol, 93:e02035-18, 2019.

Stansfield SE, Mittler JE, Gottlieb GS, Murphy JT, Hamilton DT, Detels R, Wolinsky SM, Jacobson LP, Margolick JB, Rinaldo CR, Herbeck JT, Goodreau SM.  Sexual role of HIV-1 set point viral load among men who have sex with men.  Epidemics  26:68-76 2019.

Stram MN, Suciu CN, Seheult JN, McCullough MA, Kader M, Wells A, Pasculle AW, Rinaldo CR, Ismail N.  Herpes simplex virus-1 qPCR in the diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infections in oran transplant recipients and critically ill patients.  Am J Clin Pathol, 150:522-532, 2018.

Viana IFT, Soelho DF, Palma ML, Nasciento EJM, Gu G, Lima LFO, Foti L, Krierger MA, Pilcher C, Calzavara-Silva CE, Mailliard R, Rinaldo CR, Dhalia R, Marques ETA.  Detection of IgG3 antibodies specific to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) p24 protein as marker for recently acquired infection.  Epidemiol Infect, 146:1293-1300, 2018.

DeLucia DC, Rinaldo CR, Rappocciolo G.  Inefficient HIV-1 trans infection of CD4+ T cells by macrophages from HIV-1 nonprogressors is associated with altered membrane cholesterol and DC-SIGN.  J Virol, 92:e00092, 2018.

Benson CA, Anderson JW, Macatangay BJC, Rinaldo CR, Mailliard RB, Read S, Bozzolo DR, Purdue L, Jennings C, Keefer MC, Glesby M, Tebas P, Russell AF, Martin J, Annunziato P, Popmihajlov Z, Lennox J.  Safety and immunogenicity of Zoster Vaccine Live in HIV-infected adults with CD4+ cell counts above 200 cells/uL virologically suppressed on antiretroviral therapy.  Clin Infect Dis, 67:1712-1719, 2018.

Moshavedi P, Thomas D, Rinaldo CR, Moossy JJ, Maroon JC, Murdoch GH, Hamilton RL, Homayoun H.  Subacute histopathological features in a case of varicella zoster virus myelitis and post-herpetic neuralgia.  Spinal Cord Ser Cases  4:33, 2018.

Agudelo-Hermandez A, Chen Y, Bullotta, A, Buchanan WG, Klamar-Blain CR, Borowski L, Riddler SA, Rinaldo CR, Macatangay BJC.  Subclinical herpesvirus shedding among HIV-1-infected men on antiretroviral therapy.  AIDS  31:2085-2094, 2017.

Rappocciolo G, Jais M, Piazza PA, DeLucia DC, Jenkins FJ, Rinaldo CR.  Human herpesvirus 8 infects and replicates in Langerhans Cells and Interstitial Dermal Dendritic Cells and impairs their function.  J Virol, 91:e000909-17, 2017.

Sanyal A, Mailliard RB, Rinaldo CR, Ratner D, Ding M, Chen Y, Zerbato JM, Giacobbi NS, Venkatachari NJ, Patterson BK, Chargin A, Sluis-Cremer N, Gupta P.  Novel assay reveals a large inducible-replication competent HIV-1 reservoir in resting CD4+ T cells.  Nature Med.  23:885-889, 2017.

Lepone L, Rappocciolo G, Piazza P, Campbell D, Jenkins F, Rinaldo C.  Regulatory T cell effect on CD8+ T cell responses to human herpesvirus 8 infection and development of Kaposi’s sarcoma.  AIDS Res Hum Retro, 33:668-674, 2017.

Venkatachari NJ, Jain S, Walker L, Bivalkar-Mehla S, Chattopadhyay A, Bar-Joseph Z, Rinaldo C, Ragin A, Seaberg E, Levine A, Becker J, Martin E, Sacktor N, Ayyavoo V.  Transcriptome analyses identify key cellular factors associated with HIV-1-associated neuropathogenesis in infected men.  AIDS 31:623-633, 2017. 

Gandhi RT, McMahon DK, Bosch RJ, Lalama CM, Cyktor JC, Macatangay BJ, Rinaldo CR, Riddler SA, Hogg E, Godfrey C, Collier AC, Eron JJ, Mellors JW, ACTG A5321 Team.  Levels of HIV-1 persistence on antiretroviral therapy are not associated with markers of inflammation or activation. PLoS Pathog. 13:e1006285, 2017.

Macatangay BJ, Yang M, Sun X, Morton J, Gruttola V, Little S, Hogan C, Rinaldo CR and the A5217 Team. Changes in levels of inflammation following antiretroviral treatment during early HIV infection in ACTG A5217. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 75:137-141, 2017.

Chen Y, Shen C, Guha D, Ding, M, Kulich S, Ashimkhanova A, Rinaldo C, Seaberg E, Margolick JB, Stosor V, Martínez-Maza O, Gupta P.  Identification of the transcripts associated with spontaneous HCV clearance in individuals co-infected with HIV and HCV. BMC Infect Dis. 16:693, 2016.

Gearhart TL, Montelaro RC, Schurdak ME, Pilcher CD, Rinaldo CR, Kodadek T, Park Y, Islam K, Yurko R, Marques ET, Jr, Burke DS. Selection of a potential diagnostic biomarker for HIV infection from a random library of non-biological synthetic peptoid oligomers. J Immunol Methods.  435:85-89, 2016.

McKay HS, Bream JH, Margolick JB, Martínez-Maza O, Phair JP, Rinaldo CR, Abraham A, Jacobson LP.  Host factors associated with serologic inflammatory markers assessed using multiplex assays. Cytokine. 85:71-79, 2016.

Smith KN, Mailliard RB, Piazza PA, Fischer W, Korber BT, Fecek RJ, Ratner D, Gupta, P, Mullins JI,  Rinaldo CR. Effective cytotoxic T lymphocyte targeting of persistent HIV-1 during antiretroviral therapy requires priming of naive CD8+ T cells. mBio 7: e00473-16, 2016.

Macatangay BJ, Riddler SA, Wheeler ND, Spindler J, Lawani M, Hong F, Buffo MJ, Whiteside TL, Kearney MF, Mellors JW, Rinaldo CR.  Therapeutic vaccination with dendritic cells loaded with autologous HIV-1-infected apoptotic cells.  J Infect Dis. 213:1400-1409, 2016.

Falade-Nwulia O, Seaberg EC, Snider AE, Rinaldo CR, Phair J, Witt, MD, Thio CL. Incident hepatitis B virus Infection in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men who have sex with men from pre-HAART to HAART periods: A cohort study. Ann Intern Med. 163:673-680, 2015.

Zaccard CR, Watkins SC, Fecek RJ, Kalinski P, Salter RD,  Ayyavoo V, Rinaldo CR, Mailliard RB.  CD40 ligand induces  networks of tunneling nanotubes exclusively in dendritic cells activated by mediators of type-1 immunity. J Immunol. 194:1047-1056, 2015.

Macatangay BJ, Rinaldo CR.  Preserving HIV-specific T cell responses:  does  timing of antiretroviral therapy help?  Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 10:55-60, 2015.

Knowlton E, Rappocciolo G, Lepone LM,  Nadgir SV,  Bullotta  A,  Berendam SJ, Li J,  Reinhart TA, Jenkins FJ, Rinaldo CR.  Human herpesvirus 8 induces polyfunctional B lymphocytes that drive Kaposi's sarcoma. MBio  5:e01277-14, 2014.

Rappocciolo G, Jais M, Piazza, P, Berendam SJ, Reinhart TA, Gupta P, Rinaldo C.  Alterations in cholesterol metabolism restrict trans infection in HIV-1 controllers. mBIO 5: e01031-13, 2014.

Piazza P, Campbell D, Mailliard R, Marques, E, Hildebrand WH, Buchli R, Rinaldo CR. Dengue virus infected human dendritic cells reveal hierarchies of naturally expressed novel NS3 CD8 T cell epitopes. Clin. Exp. Immunol.  177:696-702, 2014.

Smith KN, Mailliard RB, Larsen BB, Wong K, Gupta P, Mullins JI, Rinaldo CR.  Dendritic cells restore CD8+ T cell reactivity to autologous HIV-1.  J. Virol.  88:9976-9990, 2014.

Melhem NM, Smith KN, Huang X-L, Colleton BA, Jiang W, Mailliard RB, Mullins JI, Rinaldo CR. The impact of viral evolution and frequency of variant epitopes on primary and memory human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific CD8+ T cell responses. Virology 450-451:34-48, 2014.

Rinaldo CR. HIV-1 trans infection of CD4+ T cells by professional antigen presenting cells. Scientifica 2013:164203, 2013.

Mailliard R, Smith KN, Fecek RJ, Rappocciolo G, Nascimento E, Marques E T H, Watkins SC, Mullins JI, and Rinaldo, C.R. Selective Induction of CTL helper rather than killer activity by natural epitope variants promotes dendritic cell-mediated HIV-1 dissemination. J. Immunol. 191:2570-2580, 2013.


Charles R Rinaldo